Electrical machines were initially operational about 150 years back for workshop type jobs or for air/water circulation etc. Their applications for transportation (rail as well as road) were practiced about 125 years back. Lots of ups and downs have been experienced during this long span of time. Inventions of radically different technologies were at the service of mankind for planning better products. Added to that have been driving forces due to intense international competition to innovate. This has led us to the present wisdom in our subjects so as to produce ‘state-of-the-art products’. Whatever was not even dreamt about 50 years back is in popular use today. Glamorous examples of these are Computerization, the Internet, mobile communication, applications of solar power, etc. VLSI(micro-electronics),nano-technology are some examples of the latest path-breaking areas which changed our lifestyle drastically. During the past two decades, we have been convinced that what is constant is ‘change’. These technological changes have been too many. Further, they occurred too fast to sustain. Still, we gladly cope up with this, by learning / adapting new systems. That is how we enjoy the sweet fruits of progress.
Coming back to the issue related to Vehicles, we are a witness to dynamic changes. Coal/steam-driven trucks/ buses were in use up to 1950. Diesel-based Transportation (Road as well as Rail) continues to be the first choice, after 1960. However, rail traffic is getting speedily replaced by electric traction for which the process started about 20 years back. After 2010, it is the turn off road vehicles to choose Electric Drives. There has been a strong will to operate road traction using energy in electrical form. Naturally, it will start with smaller sizes. As an example, Electric MoBikes have become fairly popular during the past decade.
Talking about cars, the western world has different constraints and priorities. In smaller communist countries, fossil-fuel-based generation cannot be afforded for want of foreign exchange. They prefer to pay higher energy tariff for solar- or wind- the power to minimize foreign exchange required for importing the crude oil.
As a result, there are consistent and hectic efforts since two decades to strike a solution in the form of an Electric car acceptable to the majority of small car users. The first effort resulted in such a car with its 30 km run with a fully charged battery. Full charging of the battery needs four hours with a powerful
( & hence costly) charger. This needed a drastic improvement. In the mean time, use of solar energy for powering the EV started being attractive. During sunny hours, the charged battery started powering the car for 20 km more due to the solar power input while driving on the road through the panels mounted on the vehicle top. This gave a positive boost to the acceptance of electric car. Solar panel also looked after battery-charging during day hours, resulting into money-saving. Further progress in all the supporting directions can be enumerated as follows: (1) Super-Capacitor has been a new product since 2005. It has its energy density one lakh times more than an ordinary capacitor. This proved to be an excellent companion for the battery. So much so that a Hybrid electric vehicle bought today will have a Battery Management System [BMS] in place of Battery. BMS is nothing but a Battery with the lower Amp-Hour rating, a Super-Capacitor, and a controller to monitor the currents shared by these two. The programming in the controller ensures that the battery will never be required to supply more than its rated current even if the load demands. In such cases, the controller ensures that the excess current is fed by the super-capacitor, to retain the full life of the battery. (2) Efficient, controllable, and trouble-free motors must be used as the main drive. One typical popular motor is the Brushless D C Motor, popularly known by its short form BLDC. (3) Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) should have one Electric Drive, and another Bio-fuel-driven Internal Combustion Engine. The obvious purpose is to avoid consumption of fossil-fuels. (4) Applications of HEV’s as resources should be maximized. Whole-hearted efforts are ‘on’ in the USA [Project period: 2010 to 2020 ] to have a blueprint for the master-minded beneficial project. This aims at HEV’s earning revenue when ‘parked’ and ‘plugged-in for battery-charging’. This interfaces the vehicle with the grid through its intelligent charger, which caters to the needs of the grid as well as the HEV. If HEV-Battery is weak, the grid will charge it (G2V power), and HEV will have to pay for this energy. While If the grid is in need of power (as in the evenings) and if the HEV-battery is strong enough, the car will feed power to the grid (V2G power).Car-owner will be paid money for this energy. Technically, this is known as a fast-responding ‘spinning reserve’. Grid also will find this method as economical. Further, the system control/communication will select the geographical location of the car(s) from which this support should be preferred. The grid will operate under an ideal condition of “Injecting power exactly at the needy location”. Effectively, this fulfills the recent need of “distributed generation”, for better grid performance.
Links of Development:
(A) Intelligent Charger: First trigger started with a smart charger introduced in around 1990, in the USA. The focus was on using a common battery for the car and the emergency inverter. Smart charger with the car had a plug-in facility. As soon as the car is parked in the garage, the owner used to plug-in the smart-charger to the mains for battery-charging. In a way, the battery is interfaced with the grid. Depending on the situation, action would be decided by the smart charger. With the AC supply on, the battery would receive energy till it is fully charged. In the case of power failure, smart action will result in the battery feeding the selected important lamps/ fans / TV / Phones, etc. Money is saved in terms of cost of one battery. In their lifestyle, Americans find this suitable.
Next development was for the intelligence required in the system when it was imagined that a strong car battery can pump power into the grid for supporting it during peak load hours. ‘Proper power-electronics control, proper timings, proper conditions of the systems and optimally monitoring energy flow in either direction are some of the parameters of interest’. For this, now an intelligent charger is required. Initially, this was mocked at thoroughly, since the energy transactions were poor.
However, the caretaker team had a strong determination. As a result, California State Electricity Board paid money to the car-owners at Los Angeles, in 2011. This strengthened ‘rays of hopes’ for the advocates of V2G power.
(2) More Energetic Electric Cars:
(a) The progress of Hybridization: As is rightly conceived, an electrical system creates a panic situation in case of failure. The situation is more horrible for a car, since one is likely to be stranded at an unsafe spot, at an odd hour, and in a fearsome atmospheric condition like heavy rains/snowfall. There has to be another reliable source to power the vehicle to reach a nearest safe spot, say, for 10 km. There is no alternative but to add an Internal Combustion Engine (Petrol / Diesel driven) of about one-tenth rating of the vehicle. Such a Hybrid Electric Vehicle(=HEV) was readily accepted by the customers.
In the next stage of development, today’s HEV has a different meaning. The Brighter side of electrical systems is that they have higher efficiency. Today’s HEV has an electrical system rated to drive the car.
Since the battery is powering the car, its energy is depleted as the car is driven. When the energy reduces to the allowable low-limit, the I.C.Engine takes over automatically, without a need for the driver to act. The I.C.Engine drives the vehicle, and in addition, charges the battery. This goes on till the battery gets charged to a predetermined (high-) level. Then, the car is again converted to the battery-powered electric vehicle. Thus, there is no need for breaking the long journey.
Today’s HEV is, thus, more energetic. It has two power sources of matching rating. In fact, the I.C.Engine is stronger amongst the two.
Such a strong HEV can more effectively participate in V2G power.
(b) Future role of PHEV: In a project of international relevance, a strong American group is working (project period : 2010 to 2020) for technical design of control/communication set-up required at the grid-level, GSM (=Global System for Mobile Communications) / GPS (=Global Positioning System) required, cost of setting up of HEV parking lots including the Interface system required for pumping V2G power, and a strong will to use Biofuels for these I.C.Engines. Then, there is a strong recommendation that such parked cars will pump enough power (through suitable power electronic systems) to the grid during its peak-load-hours. Just for clarity, a city of the size of Nagpur will have 60 such parking lots for PHEV’s(= Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles) distributed over the city. If PHEV rating is 40 kW, each car is capable of generating a power of 40 kW. What a strong support to the grid, per car? Naturally, the intelligent charger, as an additional gadget, should not be too costly for the car-owner.
( c ) A popular version of a small car: From the concerned technical literature, car-body is likely to be almost fully covered by decorative solar panels. Such cars are likely to be the people’s cars in small countries in Europe. They will be one up in V2G power- issue. In case this dream is realized, PHEV will not be a liability but an asset to the owner who will earn appreciably by selling power to the grid during its hard hours. In return, the grid will not be required to buy power from ‘spinning reserve’ from fixed locations. It is now possible to decide ‘how much power’, ’from which location ‘, and ‘how long’.
No doubt, Americans have systematically progressed to reach the aim by 2020.
If we surf the NET rigorously, we shall whole-heartily agree that Japanese / German / Swiss / French /Asian Carmakers have many similar innovations to attract the market to sell more and more electric vehicles. Let us wish them all the best.
Whatever has been said about cars is applicable to buses. It is well known that only battery-powered city buses will operate in India by 2020. This entire issue then becomes still vital!
Two photographs below show the two recent issues which have been perfected in 2015 & 2016.
Jai Hind !
Let Others Follow!
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) has recently signed MoU with Internshala, one of the largest platforms for providing internships. This move came after AICTE’s decision to make internship mandatory for all engineering students to improve the employability and make the engineering students more industry ready so that when they can venture into the industry, they do not face any skill deficit. At G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering (GHRCE) this was envisioned in the first Academic council meeting 07 years ago in 2010, just after GHRCE got autonomous status. It was resolved that B.E.Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering students shall pursue full time six months internship in industry. As a natural response, there was resistance from all quarters, apprehensions about availability of internships, course structure changes, affiliating university norms and many more. However the members of BoG and National advisory board were very clear in their vision and the scheme was launched. Faculties took the challenge and with the proactive support of industries 287 students completed their six months internship. In the very first attempt, a batch of 5 girls could secure admission in NICMAR, on the basis of their internship Looking at the success of internship in the two departments, the scheme was extended to Electrical Engineering in 2014-15 session and subsequently to all the disciplines in 2015-16.
In order to ensure the quality of internships, every student had to undergo internship orientation workshop. In this workshop, students were made aware of the scheme, the processes, objectives of 6 months internship, dos and don’ts and expectations. Senior students who had already undergone such internship shared their experiences. Every batch of students was associated with a faculty mentor to keep a close watch on the performance of students. All the processes related to internship like application, approval of internships, follow-ups was managed through a in-house portal. Every student’s daily attendance record, a weekly progress report was monitored by the faculty mentors. Till date, more than 1800 students have completed their six months internship in 400 plus industries.
After completion of 6 weeks tenure, students had to undergo final examination, which was evaluated by senior industry professionals. Till date 100plus industry professionals from Pune, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Nagpur have evaluated the students for their 6 months work. Due to such extensive involvement of industry experts in the internship and project of students, GHRCE could establish a sustainable network and goodwill of employers.
This initiative has resulted in many fruits, one is that 100 plus students were placed based on their performance in six months internship in companies like TCS, Mercedes Benz, Cummins, Hotelkey, Byjus and many more, second is that the institute got national recognition by way of AICTE-CII Survey Platinum Status and NIRF ranking, but the sweetest one is the increased confidence of the students and smiles on their face.
Every year when the admission process of professional colleges begins parents and students (of both non-minority& minority categories) become curious about the admissions in minority colleges. They want to know about many aspects of minority colleges which include minority colleges in their nearby region, the recognition of minority colleges, the quality of academics in these colleges, admission processes for these colleges.
The article attempts to answer the queries of stakeholders in this regards.
Minority Educational Institution means an Institution established and administered by a minority, have the right to do so under the clause of Article 30 of the Constitution.
The government of India has awarded the minority status to some educational trusts, societies, and colleges. The prime objective of granting minority status is to empower the minority category students and to offer them opportunities of education. The government follows the structured procedure for granting the minority status. Minority colleges are two major categories viz. Religious and Linguistic. Religious minority includes Jain, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Zoroastrians (Parsis).Linguistic minority status is normally granted on the basis of the minority language.A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities.
According to the 38th report of National Commission of Linguistic Minority (NCLM) “In each state, there is a language which is spoken by the majority of the residents of that state. All others who do not speak that language belong to a linguistic minority.” In Maharashtra Hindi linguistic minority colleges exist.Both Religious& Linguistic Minority colleges can admit the nonminority as well as minority category students. As per present admission guidelines of Maharashtra State CET Cell, the minority engineering colleges and polytechnics are allowed to admit 51% minority students and 49% nonminority (i.e. open & reserved category )students. Thus minority colleges have both nonminority as well as minority category students which offer diversity for the overall growth of students.
As far as the academics is considered Minority Colleges are at par the other nonminority colleges. Like nonminority colleges, minority colleges are also affiliated to the Universities and recognized by AICTE & Govt. of Maharashtra. Minority colleges follow the same University curriculum and examination system as that is used for nonminority colleges. Minority colleges need not depute only minority faculty. This allows minority colleges to select competent faculty as per the merit, which in turn assures the quality of education.Academics of Minority College are at par with nonminority colleges.
Also, many minority colleges are doing well and their students secure top ranks in the Universities and Boards as well as get good placements.
The admission process of engineering programs in Colleges and Polytechnics has been started. For CAP Round I & II, both nonminority and minority category students can consider the minority colleges in their neighboring region and give the appropriate option for admission. As admissions are merit based, the nonminority category students can get admissions in minority colleges.
Also, the vacant seats (if any) in minority quota are made available to nonminority students in CAP round III round.
Minority admission quota of linguistic minority (Hindi) colleges is reserved for the students who belong to linguistic Hindi minority family having mother tongue “Hindi”. The student has to give an affidavit in this regard and complete the enrollment process as prescribed by Commissioner and Competent authority Maharashtra State CET Cell. The detailed procedure for minority admission is available on the admission portal of Maharashtra State CET Cell, Mumbai. Also, the student can get more information by contacting the College.
The alarm rang and as usual, I took no longer than 20 mins(too long indeed) 😉 to get up from the bed. Well, a fine Sunday morning… The rays of the Sun had made the sky lookShinny and the cool Light Blue shade, which is my favorite, covered the whole sky. After getting fresh, I walked towards the garden.
As I stepped on the grass, I felt a wet sensation on my feet. It might have drizzled in the night. It is a great feeling to experience the cool raindrops caught in the grass.
The pleasant fragrance made me sway right to the corner where the roses had just bloomed after a long dark, night. The Dew drops on the green leaves caught my sight. I kept admiring the beauty of this little beautiful biosphere.
Suddenly, a little bird caught my eyes. A pigeon it was… It sat on a nearby Pole. Watching birds fly in the sky freely encourages me a lot. It’s their domain – the Vast Blue Domain that Forces no limit to a bird’s flight. It can fly anywhere, it wants to. It has no bondage that stops its wings to fly as high as it wants to. This little pigeon did not keep still on the Pole. It kept flying down, then up again and then in the corner, beside the roses where I stood watching this little creature.
Watching this Pigeon, Merlin passed my thoughts. Merlin is the name of my friend’s Pigeon. It has a Combination of Blue and Dark Grey colors, which is Quiet rarely seen in these birds. It is very beautiful.
In spite of its beauty, sometimes, it feels that it wants to convey something, something that a human is unable to understand, in fact, something that a human never wants to understand. Its eyes always search for SOMETHING. SOMETHING is missing.
It keeps searching for that vast domain. It keeps searching for its Home-The Sky.
The grace of a beautiful environment is in letting it be, how it is… Nature Is NATURAL…Nothing Artificial. Why do we forget that we, ourselves are a part of it? Biotic OR Abiotic, all have their roles to play and any kind of human obstacle in its way, can damage it… This Year lets contribute to Nature, by letting it be Natural…..
CAGE THE NATURE
Environment day – What does it Convey?
Cage the Nature- Does this moral it Lay?
Merlin’s beauty is Caged. Alas, caged by a human….!!
Flying Free, As high it can reach..
Flying free,As Fast it can preach..
Being Trapped, as Lonely it can,
Being Puzzled before the man ..
A humble appeal to the Human Race,
A pity on this false embrace..
Cage a Man, And the entire race Roars..
Cage a Bird, And it takes form of Folklores…..
Those lil Wings when fear to open,
Those lil Hopes then, begin to rotten…
Open the gate of the metal cage..
Let it out of this home of rage…
Will it get to fly freely again?
Will it get to experience the drizzling rain?
Will it get to sing in an open space?
Will it be freed by the human race?
Again, the present year will pass, and again, the calendar will indicate 5th June and again on the same day, a caged bird will keep pleading for its FREEDOM……
- NAMANNOOR JABBAL
Being a Raisonian…
Sometimes your dream, when turns into reality, makes you believe to the fact – Yes, this is what I was waiting to happen! Being a student of Sadabai Raisoni Women’s College for 3yrs, made me believe that to rise high in life, Determination is the seed which needs to be sowed to gain rich fruits in the future.
With my journey from being Miss. Fresher 2014 to Miss. Farewell 2017, I have learned a million lessons that will help me achieve my desires. A Raisonian this tag will be attached to me forever. Being in Raisoni, I got a chance to become a member of Rotaract Club of Nagpur. Participating in Nirmalaya during Ganesh Chaturthi, attending various Personality Development Sessions, Debating all the 3 years around and such situations made me realize how my persona has evolved.
Being at Raisoni, made me AN ACHIEVER in Academics as well. To my surprise, I topped my Fifth Semester (BCA). With proper Guidance from my Teachers and support of Mrs. Amina Vali Ma’am (Principal), I could achieve a lot.
Dhamaal Dandiya is celebrated on a very large scale during Navratri and this is the most awaiting event all the year round. Students from RGI participate in this event and yes, Celebs make the event more enchanting…….
National Student’s Parliament (NSP) is the cherry on top of the Raisoni Cake…Yumm……: P This is something which should be compulsorily attended by everyone to enhance the personalities. Ever thought of an event in your city that amazes you about the knowledge it preaches, wonders it spread, and values it instills? Well, NSP it is…. I bagged the title of Student Speaker this Year! Really felt Proud about it.
Being a student of Sadabai Raisoni Women’s College, makes me feel proud to be a Girl, a Deterministic Girl! This college turns a young Girl to an Independent Lady! Protection of Women from Various Evil Powers that contain itself in the stories aging from the rude history of women to this modern perception in today’s world needs to be built Stronger. And the urge to change the minds of the society regarding this cruelty gets instilled in the student of SRWC from the very First day of the College due to the Magical Words that are addressed to the Fresher’s.
This experience counts a lot to me in my life. It has given a direction to my career. I have been placed at Global Education Limited and working as an Intern for 3 months. I love to write. My hobby Has already been polished at SRWC and now it is deepening its roots.
My way, My Desires, My Goals and My Achievements, I Am Strong Enough To Choose My OWN DESTINATION………..
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